Treatment and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

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Diagnosis :

Many HIV-positive people are unaware that they are infected with the virus
If you think you may have been exposed to HIV, get an HIV test.
Most people infected with HIV develop specific antibodies (i.e. seroconvert) within three to twelve weeks of the initial infection.
Some of the test doctors can advice you are:
HIV tests They are tested for? Window period How long for the results? Specificity & Sensitivity
ELISA antibody tests HIV antibodies 3 months Between 1 to 2 days High
ELISA combined antigen/antibody test HIV antibodies & p24 antigens 15 days to 21 days 2 days High
HIV RNA PCR HIV antibodies Minimum 10 days 5-6 days High

HIV-1 testing is initially by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to HIV-1 Specimens with a reactive ELISA, results are retested in duplicate. If the result of any of the duplicate test is reactive, the sample is reported as repeatedly reactive and undergoes confirmatory testing with western blot or IFA. Only specimens that are repeatedly reactive are considered HIV-positive and indicative of HIV infection

Treatment :

Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. Find out the result of your test and talk to your health care provider about treatment options if you're HIV-positive
Choice of treatment & management mostly used are:
  • Antiviral therapy -- highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
  • Measures to prevent opportunistic infections
  • Maintain healthy diet


There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment (ART) can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy