Dysuria In Female

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Q: What is Dysuria?

Dysuria is the term used to indicate difficult urination. It could pain, burning, itching or discomfort while passing urine which makes urination difficult. It is more common in females due to the anatomical proximity of the urethra to the vagina and the anus which facilitates the passage of bacteria into it.

Q: What are the causes?

There are a variety of underlying conditions that may cause dysuria, such as:
  • UTIs: Urinary tract infections involving any part of the urinary tract (bladder, kidneys, ureter or the urethra)
  • Any eruption or lesion on the genitals
  • Injury to the urethra during intercourse or any medical procedure
  • Use of irritant chemicals on the genitals
  • Douching
  • Vaginal infections (candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis).
  • Hormonal changes such as pregnancy or menopause
  • Kidney stones
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Diabetes weakens the immune system and predisposes one to infection thus, causing dysuria.
  • Usually, pain during or before urination is due to external or superficial factors such as injury, lesions or lower urinary tract infections. Pain after urination indicates bladder or kidney diseases.

Q: What are the signs and symptoms of dysuria?

Apart from dysuria, other symptoms that may accompany include:
  • Fever
  • Backache
  • Blood in urine
  • Cloudy urine
  • Offensive urine
  • Chills
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Frequent or dribbling urination
  • Redness around the urethra

Q: How can we prevent it?

  • Maintain proper hygiene. Wash and dry the area after every bathroom visit.
  • Wipe the area from front to back after passing stool to avoid entry of any bacteria from the anus.
  • Do not use scented soaps, chemicals, lubricants on the genital area as that disturbs the healthy bacteria balance.
  • Do not douche.
  • Have safe and protective sex. Urinate after every act.
  • Drink adequate amount of water.

Q: What are its diagnosis?

Mild attack of pain may resolve spontaneously. However, for chronic, severe or recurrent attacks, examination by a medical professional is necessary.
Physical examination followed by a urine sample analysis is generally sufficient for diagnosis. In case of STD suspicion, a comprehensive STD test may be done.
For upper UTI involving kidneys or bladder, a blood test or ultrasonography may also be required.

Q: What are the treatment available?

A course of antibiotics can treat most of the cases of dysuria. Other cases may include topical applications, antifungal drugs or pain killers.